Initially daily but now sporadic blog about anime and world animation with a specific focus on the artists behind the work. Written by Ben Ettinger.
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« Towards the RainbowThe long goodbye »

‹ Friday, February 8, 2008 ›

02:08:14 am , 2516 words, 8389 views     Categories: Animation, TV

Tiger Mask

I recently had a chance to see a few episodes of the old Toei TV series Tiger Mask. It was very interesting viewing in many ways. Besides being quite entertaining in spite of its age, this show features some of the most dynamic and exciting animation I've seen in any TV show of that period - or this one, for that matter - making it of considerable historical interest from an animation standpoint.

In spite of the show's relatively low profile over here, Tiger Mask is in fact at the root of a number of currents in anime, having been a training ground for a number of major animators and an influence on many others. It's something of a key show in anime history, surprisingly. This period in the latter half of the 1960s produced a handful of classic sports anime that were hugely popular among TV viewers, as well as influential on the rest of the industry, such as Kyojin no Hoshi and Ashita no Joe, and Tiger Mask ranks right alongside them as one of the most important sports anime of the period - the defining wrestling anime to the defining baseball/boxing anime of the former two shows. Nonetheless it, like most of these other sports anime classics, remains very little known over here in the west. These shows have admittedly aged a bit after some 40 years, and probably appear at first sight quite lame and cheesy to prospective viewers today. But in the best cases they hold up surprisingly well in many respects, far more than other shows of the period, thanks to good directing/drama and surprisingly strong animation, so they merit rediscovery.

Prior to watching a few episodes of Tiger Mask just recently, I was already familiar with the classic opening, the dynamic and sketchy style of which gave a clear indication just how unique this show was in terms of the animation, and got me curious to see more. Basically, it just moves far more than many shows from that period. Drawing after drawing passes by as the wrestlers run around, jump from the cords, grapple with one another, lunge at one another. Sports is all about athletes and physical motion, but anime by definition seems to impose limits on how much a character can move, so prior to seeing this, the whole idea of 'sports anime' struck me as something of an oxymoron. But the Tiger Mask opening seemed like the exception to that rule. It was one of the few anime I'd seen that put the considerable effort required into the animation to recreate that most basic thrill in sports - seeing the athlete vigorously moving around doing his thing. Besides that, there was the sheer rawness of the animation, which I personally found very appealing as a fan of the latter-day proponents of rough-styled animation like Shinya Ohira and Shinji Hashimoto. This was sketchy, spontaneous stuff full of flying lines and quickly drawn poses, certainly like nothing else I'd seen from this period.

I'd heard good things about Tiger Mask the show itself, but I probably would never have bothered to seek it out beyond the opening had some tapes not been bestowed upon me, so I'm grateful for having been given the opportunity to finally experience the show. I'm quite fond of several of Toei's earliest TV series like Ken the Wolf Boy and Hustle Punch, which I originally explored as missing links between Toei's feature period and TV period, and wound up finding to be quite excellent on their own merits, but for some reason I've never bothered exploring the TV work Toei did over the next few years.

Tiger Mask comes along right at that period in the late 1960s when we start to see a major surge in the number of subcontracting studios, many of which were being formed by people who had just quit either Mushi Pro or Toei. Usually those new subcontracting studios would go on to do subcontracting for the same big studios the founder had just left. (Tokyo Movie was another big contractor of the day) Such is precisely the case with the main figure behind Tiger Mask: Keiichiro Kimura. As I mentioned in the post on A Production, Keiichiro Kimura had trained at Toei Doga under Daikichiro Kusube. He did his first animation work as an inbetweener on the two 1963 films (Sinbad and Little Prince), before shifting course and moving to work on the TV shows, which he did from there on out. His first big job was working under Kusube on Fujimaru in 1964 alongside Yoichi Kotabe. Afterwards, he was abruptly bumped up to working as character designer/animation director, in which capacity he worked for two more years at Toei, first on Rainbow Sentai Robin and then on the first Cyborg 009 film. After then working on a number of other shows, Kimura was finally appointed character designer of Tiger Mask, which wound up being his last job at Toei. He quit mid-way to form his own studio, Neo Media, although he continued working on the show from his new studio.

Keiichiro Kimura is a one-of-a-kind character. No geeky nerd as a youth, Kimura was a burly tower of power enrolled in all of the sports clubs, who cowed not only his classmates, but also his teachers with his fearsome, never-smiling facade and his hit-first-ask-later attitude. After graduating from high school, family friends suspected he had become a yakuza. But he just loved to paint. Having spent much of his time during high school behind the easel painting, by the end of his studies he had honed his skills enough that he was able to win a competition hosted by the Mainichi newspaper, even getting his name in the paper. After graduating, this helped motivate him to try his hand at getting into an art school. However, he was unable to pass the entrance exams. It was then that he ran across an ad in the newspaper from Toei Doga looking for animators, and he decided to apply. He contacted Daikichiro Kusube, who had grown up in the same town and graduated from the same high school a few years ahead of Kimura, and the rest is history.

Daikichiro Kusube was known at the studio as the guy under whom all of the misfits assembled, and it was under him that Keiichiro Kimura learned the ropes. Yasuo Otsuka would occasionally drop by Kimura's desk to give him tips, answer questions, show him how to do things, and otherwise be tremendously generous with his knowledge, for which Kimura was very grateful. Whereas Kusube was Kimura's teacher, Otsuka was probably his greatest influence, stylistically speaking. It can be assumed that Otsuka's influence is at least partly one of the elements leading to the style we find in Tiger Mask.

Besides this, Keiichiro Kimura mentions that the one explicit influence behind the style he adopted for Tiger Mask was the work of Bob Peak, an illustrator who created a number of famous Hollywood posters and sports illustrations in the 1960s. Peak smeared the paint across the canvas expressively, heightening the feeling of exertion in the athletes he painted. Kimura works with only pencil in his work, so it's hard to see any direct influence. It's more of a spiritual hint that Kimura seems to have taken from Peak's work, in terms of the sort of freedoms he could allow himself with the drawings and timing in order to achieve a more dynamic and exciting piece of animation.

Kimura had always had an aggressively go-getter attitude when it came to his animation. Perhaps influenced by the teaching of Otsuka, as an inbetweener, he had always pushed himself to draw as many inbetweens as he could, driven by the conviction that skill came as a result of hard hours of practice, and if you wanted to become a great animator, the more you could draw, the faster you'd get there. Toei Doga had recently switched to a piecemeal system of payment, where animators were paid by the sheet rather than by the hour, which was certainly another motivating factor behind the very speed-oriented style of drawing that Kimura had acquired by the time he began working on Tiger Mask. Combine stylistic inclination with a speedy drawing hand acquired through years of work, and the result is the hard-edged and freewheeling approach to action that makes Tiger Mask so memorable.

Kimura came up with a variety of tricks and inventions to pump up the excitement on the animation of the wrestling matches, which were, after all, the centerpiece of the show. He told his animators, "Imagine the ring is as big as a football field." What he meant by this is, exaggerate the length of the actions. Allow your character to run for ten meters before taking a flying leap and soaring through the air for five seconds before he lands on the other side. The action in Tiger Mask is full of breathtaking, space- and gravity-defying aerial acrobatics that are tremendously fun to watch, even while they gleefully stretch plausibility.

Rather than planning out a wrestler's move in a particular shot in detail prior to sitting down to animate it, he sat right down and came up with the moves on the spur of the moment. You can see very clearly in the opening how this approach to his task shows up in the animation on the screen. Rather than a fluid, predictable motion, we have a series of choppy and jumpy but spontaneous and very expressive poses fluidly flowing in one unprecedentedly long arc for a single shot, incorporating extravagantly long camera moves that reportedly resulted in the background painters having to create some of the longest backgrounds ever painted for a TV show in Japan. He varied the frame rate dynamically, something he learned from Otsuka, going from spare threes to twos or even ones at unexpected moments.

But most of all, those aggressive lines! It seems like he nearly cuts through the paper, he presses down so hard with his pencil to create these incredibly powerful and jagged lines that criss-cross the characters and give them an immediacy beyond any other show of the period. Every little jagged notch is kept alive in the final product thanks to the Xerox method that was used back then. Inbetweeners reportedly had a challenge adapting to his demands. The result of Kimura's long years spent learning how to draw large quantities of inbetweens as good and quickly as possible can be seen in Tiger Mask, which seems to be the culmination of a young animator's long incubation period. Kimura would even extend his action sequences by adding shots not in the storyboard, which halfway into the show wound up leading to disputes with the directors that eventually led to him quitting Toei. He was determined to create the most exciting animation he could. He just had his own brash way of going about it.

Kimura handled episodes in alternation with a handful of other animation directors, and their work is interesting in that it shows a number of different interpretations of the style presented by Kimura. A number of these figures went on to become famous for their work elsewhere, making this show also interesting as a showcase of the early work of a few other greats. These include Oh Production founders Kazuo Komatsubara and Koichi Murata, and soon-to-be Topcraft animators Tsuguyuki Kubo and Yoshinori Kanemori. Another soon-to-be Topcraft animator, Tadakatsu Yoshida, can be seen among the animators on Kubo's episode. Each of these animators went on to develop his own unique graphic touch that seems to have taken in a little something of what Kimura was doing here.

Of the few episodes I've been able to sample, I was particularly taken by Kubo's work here, as I was not familiar with his pre-Topcraft style. Hidekazu Ohara has mentioned that Kubo's painterly drawing skill was one of the things that convinced him to join Topcraft, and that skill was clearly in evidence here. Kubo shows a brilliant eye for drawing faces with distinctly and pleasantly rendered features that sets itself apart from the look of the rest of the animation directors, almost with a more western look to it. You can see one of his drawings above - he did the third drawing, of the guy with the smashed-in face. Kimura's own drawings can be seen in the top two drawings, as well as the opening. Each animation director exhibits a distinct touch of line, which only magnifies the pleasure of watching the show, giving it a variety of styles that huddle together comfortably under the overarching umbrella of Kimura's rough 'n dirty approach.

The show is rather watchable besides, in a sort of comic book-melodramatic way, with its lovably convoluted and heart-tugging story about an unfortunate wrestler blackmailed by a mysterious international school of assassins into wrestling one opponent after another in order to pay off his debts to the school, which taught him everything he knows. All the while, he's forced to wear a tiger mask in the ring to protect his identity so that the orphans at the orphanage - for whom he also happens to be fighting to earn money, having been an orphan there himself in his youth - will not discover his identity. The recurring theme of how powerlessness drives the characters to seek the power to overcome seems very much of its time for Japan, which was presumably well on its way to recovery by 1970. The show has a decidedly 'showa' atmosphere about it that is very warm and inviting, with its reassuringly humanistic tone and themes, which is a huge contrast with the bulk of anime made today. The fights get quite bloody and violent, almost certainly more than any other show by that point, so it is easy to see how the show might have shocked audiences in its day.

The animation directors who worked on the show would go on to do more work for Toei and other studios, retaining something of the rough touch of line of Tiger Mask, in the process establishing a kind of a tradition for this kind of roughly drawn TV animation in Japan. Tiger Mask has been cited as an influence by any number of animators, and latter-day echoes of the style pioneered by Kimura here continue to found heard in various places, ranging from Shinji Hashimoto's work to Kemonozume.

After Tiger Mask ended, Kimura continued doing subcontract work for other studios from his new studio, Neo Media, where he had several other animators working under him. He and Yasuhiro Yamaguchi were the first at the studio, working on Lupin together in 1971, with Yoshiyuki Momose and Masayuki Uchiyama coming in right afterwards and working on Dokonjo Gaeru. In the latter half of the 1970s, two other animators joined the studio who would go on to make a name for themselves in the 1980s and beyond: Yuji Moriyama and Hiroyuki Kitakubo. For a small subcontractor, Keiichiro Kimura's Neo Media put out an impressive number of great animators.



wildarmsheero [Visitor]  

Tiger Mask is on my list of “classic obscure anime that I should watch but chances are I probably won’t.” Sadly, this kind of stuff is totally unknown to the US, probably because these types of shows never really made it over here in some form (like Yamato or Macross, or if we’re talking Tiger Mask’s era, Mach Go Go Go.) Slowly, though, they’re being rediscovered. One fansub group has started on Ashita no Joe, so there’s some hope.

There’s no two main problems with these types of shows, though. 1) Availability– fansubs/raws are sparse, and not many people are willing to drop a ton of yens on some JP boxset for a random old show and 2) Length– A lot of fans don’t have the time/attention span for these longer series. Hell, the longest series I’ve ever completed has been 70 episodes (Cardcaptor Sakura.)

I really appreicate these types of posts. Good to know there’s someone out there willing to dig up these old classics, and provide for us very detailed information on its production. I too like the very sketchy style of animation. Unfortunately, given my sensibilities are more aligned with late 90s aesthetics, I can’t really appreicate it beyond small doses here and there.

02/08/08 @ 11:30
Anton [Visitor]  

Hey Ben, are you in a sort of “mind communication” with Yuasa Masaaki ? I just come back from the projection of Mind Game here in France with the presence of Yuasa Masaaki, and last night we were some people at his “Carte Blanche". 3 hours of projection with various pieces of anime works (Yellow Submarine, Starevitch, La Planete Sauvage…). One thing very interesting related to your post : the projection of the opening of Tiger Mask. He said it was a big influence for him, pointing like you the work of Kimura. He also said that Kemonozume was clearly done with this reference in mind.

And another thing not related to your post : Yuasa came in France with his segment of Genius Party and a video of his new work, Kaiba. A more “shônen/kawaï” (in a “showa style") character design but in a “Yuasa way".

02/08/08 @ 20:16
Matt [Visitor]  

This is why i love this site. I knew nothing about this show and i’m ashamed to admit it. How can i get copies of this!?

02/09/08 @ 02:42
Régis [Visitor]  

I second that! I’ve watched that opening alone countless times, and the screen caps on the article look great Ben! Someone’s got to get the word out to the fansubbers.

02/09/08 @ 23:28
Ben [Member]  

Very interesting coincidence, Anton. Thanks for pointing that out.

Don’t blame yourself if you haven’t heard of the show, Matt. It’s pretty obscure over here, to say nothing of impossible to find. I don’t really blame people for not going out of their way to track down copies of some old wrestling anime from the 1960s…

As for where to find the show, unfortunately I don’t think it’s available subbed anywhere yet, so there’s no easy way that I know of. Otherwise it’s actually been surprisingly well served on DVD in Japan. There are individual volumes and a complete 3-part box set. (viz) It also appears to have been released in full in Italian.

02/10/08 @ 12:35
Anton [Visitor]  

Thanks for the italian link !

02/10/08 @ 15:21
colonylaser [Visitor]  

Torrents of the Italian episodes (some Spanish ones even) can be found on the mininova. No sub as far as I know. Try to stay seeding as long as possible for others.

My earliest recollection of the anime living in Hong Kong were about 1969 or 70. Even to a 7 year old kid, I knew Tiger Mask was decidedly different than the others (Tetsujin 28, Testsuwan Atomu, Mach Go Go Go, Ribon no Kenshi,etc.). It had a gritty adult feel to it that the other more childlish shows don’t. Death was a big thing, and some of the villains turn out not all that bad. There were a lot of gray area, and consequences of the actions the hero takes do not always turn out for the better. Heavy stuff indeed to a 7 year old.

In truth I don’t remember much about the show, but the snippets that I do recall were pretty powerful to a young mind: Tiger Mask was a loner, a man without an identity as he was an orphan and trained only in the most hellish way by an evil organization (reminescent of the training of the Saints in Saint Seiya). Not only was he casted a villain inside the ring and hated by all (adding to his loner personna), he actually did carry out many dirty works for the organization outside the ring. But gradually he realizes his err and seeks redemption by turning against the organization. Adding to the gritty excitement were some truly monstrous opponents. One of his major rivals, this guy with a metallic lion mask, would regularly bite his opponents to pulpy mess using his mask. In the end and what kept me rooted to the show, was the sappy melodrama: He had this semi-romance thing going with this girl (also an orphan I think) but he couldn’t break it to her. Along with several people he loved, Tiger Mask had to stay hidden in his secret identity in order to protect them from the organization… not unlike Peter Parker’s dilemma, except Tiger Mask (and many similar gekiga plots) was ahead of it by about 35 years.

02/10/08 @ 15:39
colonylaser [Visitor]  

One additional link on the subject: Check out the (continuing) translation of Udagawa Takeo’s incredible “Manga Zombie” on Comipress, which latest chapter was on the works of Kajiwara Ikki, the controversial author of many famous manga/gekiga titles such as Ashita no Joe, Star of Giant, and of course Tiger Mask.…

02/10/08 @ 15:58
pete [Member]

As far as Kemonozume goes, if you watch some works of Bill Plympton, especially the 2004 short “Guard Dog", you’ll also see some striking similarities, like the guts scene

02/10/08 @ 22:05
pete [Member]

Sorry, I meant the 2003 short “Parking”

the animation looks very similar

02/11/08 @ 02:14
Anton [Visitor]  

I’m reading the translation of comicpress too. Very very instructive, with lots of visual references…

Thanks for the info about Tiger Mask serie too, if it’s in italian or spanish i’ll have no problem to understand it. “Bonne pioche” for me today.

02/11/08 @ 03:25
Daniel Zelter
Daniel Zelter [Visitor]  

Ben: You ever watch Kinnikuman?

02/17/08 @ 01:06
Ben [Member]  

No, never have seen Kinnikuman, Toei’s other big wrestling anime. I notice the character designer, Toshio Mori, was one of the ADs of Tiger Mask.

02/17/08 @ 10:02
Marco Milone
Marco Milone [Visitor]  

Interesting post!

03/16/08 @ 06:08
mike [Visitor]  

Hey. I made a poster inspired by tiger-mask for a design contest. Can I ask you for votes for my CAT-MASK fighter?

You just click a yellow star on that url

05/06/08 @ 06:14
seigi [Visitor]  

anything written by Ikki Kajiwara continues to make impacts after impacts, his ideas and beliefs were ahead of time by a good 50-100 years. He was blamed by all including the rich boy Tezuka Osamu because his actions do not conform to feminism evil, but time continues to prove that Kajiwara is correct, in spite of feminism prapagandas.

Kyojin no hoshi, Ashita no joe and Tiger Mask included, all seems to be synopsis of Kaijwara’s life. If Tezuka is named God of Manga, Hayao the god of anime, then Kajiwara must be the God of Arts.

06/03/10 @ 06:58
Dean Garretson
Dean Garretson [Visitor]

I been doing my research on this anime show! i knew about this show for some time! Yes I have all of the episodes! its a very unique show! One I decided to step forward and sub it myself! Right now I’m getting all of the research done ” I have the itallion dubb one..and working on a translation as accurate as I can get it! I’m only doing one episode..the first one..I’ll keep you updated!1

12/08/12 @ 20:47
drmecha [Visitor]

Hi Ben:
A few years ago he had heard about the importance of Tiger Mask series in their animation. It is really admirable.
But right now I discovered the Ashita no Joe series.
I’ve already seen 62 chapters. I’m really impressed by the quality of animation. Have you seen?
I really never expected to see something with so quality. In argument, animation and other technical issues as painting, animation and backgrounds.
My admiration is such that at one point might be thinking you were watching a series of 1980 or more.
At times the fluidity of the animation is high for TV. And many times the painting is so detailed that reminds me of the 80s OVAs titles. if not exaggerating.
As I mentioned I have seen until chapter 62 If you have not seen the series I recommend you see the first half of chapter 58 This chapter is the most lively of detail I saw so far. Evidently there was a study of human movement, among other things. Also the painting is amazing.
As you know, in this series had the important role Studio Jaguard, freelance studio formed by animators from mushi (who works with Mushi and TMS) and obviously some future Madhouse animators. At times the animation reminds me of the first Yamato series, which is not unusual as it shares some staff (Tomino, Ishiguro).
It is a perfect example of the immediately time preceding the closing of Mushi Pro and the opening of Office Academy, Sunrise, Madhouse and Nippon Animation.
I was reading a little about what you wrote about Shonen Isamu, is one of the upcoming series I will explore.
Late 60s and early 70s is an exciting era for exploring! :)
Sorrt for my bad english. :)

09/14/14 @ 05:35
Ben [Member]  

Back in the days before torrenting, some fifteen years ago or so, I remember coming across the full VHS collection of Ashita no Joe at a Japanese corner store in Seattle, and renting the whole damn thing. I still distinctly remember the strange looks I got from the cashier, too! So yes, I’ve seen it, and I absolutely adored it. Definitely one of the great anime shows of all time, and despite ups and downs in quality, and some fairly repetitive storytelling, it probably still holds up pretty well these days. It’s one of the few shows I’m tempted to re-watch from start to finish to blog about it. Ashita no Joe 2 is also supposed to be pretty good, but I haven’t seen that one. The episode I particularly remember is #14 directed by Masami Hata with solo animation by Dezaki himself. One of the great episodes of all time. Indeed, there is still much to discover from the period of the late 60s/early 70s and much I’d like to write about. It’s probably my favorite period of anime, followed closely by late 80s/early 90s. Anyway, good to hear you’re watching something other than mecha for once. :)

09/15/14 @ 10:45
drmecha [Visitor]

Haha true.
Not only I like mecha. I am also a big fan of the classic works of Nippon Animation, Miyazaki, the classic movies of Toei and Osamu Dezaki among much others.
After finish watching Ashita. I’ll start watching Ace wo Nerae or the Ashita 1980 series i never had me to observe in detail the work of the first Annapuru years (only Cobra TV, Cobra movie and Mighty Orbots).

I hope one day you write all this.

Furthermore. About Kimura’s Studio Neomedia. I am very interested in the investigation of the formation of Studio MIN where not only worked Kitakubo and Moriyama, but also Kouji Itoh (after in Graviton studio) and Hideki Tamura (Studio CAM founder and mentor of Kia Asamiya) and others. all ex-members of Neomedia
I wrote a note on my blog with what little I could investigate about Studio MIN. Studio. do not know if you saw it.
but is in spanish sorry.

09/15/14 @ 13:44
drmecha [Visitor]

Hi Ben!
I just downloaded the Karate Baka Ichidai series. (Tokyo Movie, 1973).
Keiichiro Kimura is in the credits as animation director of episodes and also key animator.
I look forward to instigate NeoMedia period before 1980! When apparently entered their new employees (Kitakubo, Moriyama, Tamura and Itoh, etc …)

09/18/14 @ 18:03
drmecha [Visitor]

Hi Ben!
where not write this.
I was looking info for an animator, which only knew his name (Toshio Okada) and found this page:

Look at this
Search with google (I can not paste the URL of the page)
is in a blog from fc2

After seeing this page I remembered that a few weeks ago, had called my attention a water animation on Mako-Chan series.
And now I remembered about 12 years ago, I (as a student in the animation school) examine and copy an water animation in the Superman series for his quality.
I could not believe when I saw this page, Okada had done all this!
You know him?

09/24/14 @ 05:03
Ben [Member]  

I’ve mentioned him numerous times in the blog, especially in my post on Jackie the Bearcub episode 1. If I can ever find enough info he’s a figure I’d like to profile properly as one of the greats of yesteryear. I didn’t realize he was a good effects animator too, quite impressive.

Karate Baka Ichidai sounds cool. I’d like to check it out as one of Kusube’s last major front-line projects.

09/26/14 @ 23:03