Initially daily but now sporadic blog about anime and world animation with a specific focus on the artists behind the work. Written by Ben Ettinger.
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Category: Telecom

Monday, August 26, 2013

06:04:00 pm , 2131 words, 5418 views     Categories: Animation, OVA, Short, Telecom

Anime Mirai 2011

I wrote about Grampa's Lamp before. I just watched the next quartet of shorts in the Bunkacho's program to support the growth of the next generation of animators, now christened Anime Mirai rather than Project A: Minding My Own Business, Dudu the Floatie, Buta and Wasurenagumo. These were released 2011. Another set of four came out in 2012. I will probably get to those eventually, although they look awful.

This is a good set in the sense that each film takes a very different tack in terms of style and story. It's a healthy variety, from the socially conscious and more artistically inclined sketch animation Minding My Own Business to the kiddy, colorful, wildly animated Dudu the Floatie to the supernatural anime rom-com Wasurenagumo to the old-school anthropomorphic swashbuckler BUTA. This seems like a better variety than the more recent set.

That said, Minding My Own Business seems to me the clear winner. It's the only film that comes together as a satisfying whole. The other films may have their qualities, but overall they feel imperfect. They work to target a certain demographic, say, which in terms of functioning as a product is fine, but they don't hold up as films. If this is the best these big studios can do, that is a big red flag that the problem isn't with the dearth of animators. I think they should be far more concerned in Japan about raising the quality of their creative thinking and storytelling than the animators. They have tons of good animators. What they don't have is studios willing to do anything other than make the same thing over and over again, or creators capable of thinking outside of the box.

It's disappointing to me that big animation studios, given the freedom to come up with animation free of the shackles of commercial constraints for once, show themselves entirely content to stay shackled to those constraints, like the elephant tied with a string. I suppose the reasoning is that this is more about vocational training, and short-sighted artistic adventuring would do the young trainees a disservice by not prepping them in the tools of the trade. I think the studios act too beholden to what they consider to be demanded by their viewers. Creative new visions should be the driving force. Among them all, only Shirogumi, a major force in advertising animation, has the moxie to create real animation and not just more of the same exact typical anime we've all seen done to death. Yes, anime is inherently entertainment, i.e. there to help us waste our time, but animation can and should aspire to more than that.

しらんぷり Minding My Own Business d. Shimpei Miyashita, ad. Naoyuki Asano

An elementary school child witnesses his classmates being bullied but feels powerless to intervene. Based on a picture book, this film skilfully explores the psychology of children both on the bullied and the bullying side in Japanese elementary schools. The vivid, raw, freewheeling, unabashedly hand-drawn animation transforms what could have been a preachy story into a tremendously entertaining, clever, moving, powerful, and even funny social parable that makes you understand the psychology of not only the bullied child but even the bully. The film is never dour or full of itself even at its most intense moments, instead telling the story through a veil of irony and wit.

I thought the director was indie animator PON Kozutsumi, Manga Nihon Mukashibanashi regular and director of Rita and Whatsit, but apparently he only did the pilot and seems to have dropped out of the project afterwards. This is disappointing, but the film thankfully turned out fine despite this. The director is instead Nippon Animation/Disney Japan stalwart Shimpei Miyashita, with the animation headed by the immensely talented Naoyuki Asano with assistance by a very talented young animator named Shintaro Doge. Asano is a name to watch. I've seen him prior in Doraemon and Tatami Galaxy.

The animation is nothing less than a supreme delight from start to finish. Drawn with rough and quick pencil lines with the calm confidence of a master's hand, the characters are full of life at every moment, their expressions vivid and their movements heightened with imaginative flourishes. Every line is visible, and lines do not play within the shapes. In the climactic wrestling scene, the characters transform into a mess of squiggles as they twirl around one another and the camera swirls around in response. Scenes segue into other scenes deftly, creating an irresistible flow that takes you through to the end. At no point does the animation feel like it is struggling technically to convince you of something beyond the animators' capabilities. They are comfortable that the handful of scribbled lines they have placed on the screen create a beautiful visual scheme. Simplicity is deceptively challenging.

Kosuke Ito's delectable piano-clarinet-violin trio creates a lovely lilting, classical but jaunty soundtrack that is the perfect accompaniment to the film's ups and downs.

Shirogumi's film is a three-dimensional film that satisfies every criteria of what both animation and filmmaking should be. Its characters ring true; the story sensitively and insightfully explores a real-life issue facing children in Japan; the film language is creative and original as well as dynamic and exciting; and the animation is top-notch without relying on conventional notions of quality such as cool and stylish drawings, twee character antics, industry-template expressive symbols, or massively inbetweened animation. It's just good, smart filmmaking that cleverly and efficiently uses the means of animation to find an emphatic and visually novel and appealing way to tell its story. It is a prime example of visual storytelling.

ぷかぷかジュジュ Dudu the Floatie d. Hiroshi Kawamata, ad. Miho Suzuki

A little girl dreams of an adventure with her dugong floatie at the beach where she rescues her father from a giant fish. The unfortunately named Dudu the Floatie is a vividly animated and honest children's film that shows the power of Answer Studio as one of the few 'full animation' studios carrying on a more western style of animation in Japan today. Telecom is another such studio - they have been behind much WB animation for decades - but their BUTA short in this set shows how different even these two studios are. Telecom seems to be struggling to regain something lost, while Answer seems to be attempting to mold their past into something new and find a way towards the future.

This is a film purely for children, unlike Minding My Own Business, which is more of a film about children. There's little pretext of realism anywhere, not least in the dialogue or diction of the little girl, which is brassy, grating, rehearsed, and entirely unbelievable. An adult can appreciate the subtle psychological turns and social commentary of Minding My Own Business, but here the directing is deliberately exaggerated and simplified, the shapes and colors bright and flat. From my perspective everything is too flat and simplified, which makes it cloying, but as a film for children this is no doubt an asset.

There is little sense of art in the film. The ugly, blobby characters float uncomfortably over the conservative, unimaginatively realistic backgrounds. The heads and features are tactlessly huge. The father's face is a round balloon with no human features. Perhaps this is how infants see the world. But with the realistic setting and satirical golfing interlude, the film seems unable to decide whether it wants to go for a conventional anime aesthetic or a more freewheeling and cartoonish children's look. I could see them making a good film in the spirit of Catnapped if they found someone with a more holistic visual concept.

That said, the animation is incredibly exciting and lively. It was easily the most entertainingly animated film in the set. They do a good job of adapting the fluid western-inspired 'full animation' (though it's not really anything remotely close to Disney style animation) aesthetic of their past, with its stretch and squash and anticipation and follow-through, to the dynamic pacing, cutting and composition conventions of Japanese commercial animation. I preferred Flag as a film for obvious reasons, but Dudu the Floatie is a much better showcase of Answer's undeniable power on the animation front. They're creating dynamic action animation of the kind that Telecom should be.

BUTA d. Kazuhide Tomonaga, ad. Shirai Yumiko

BUTA was the biggest disappointment of the set to me because I had the highest hopes for it. I knew a while back that the film would be a disappointment when I heard the creator, Christophe Ferreira, was no longer involved in his own project, whatever the internal reasons were. Had the film been made in the spirit of the pilot, it would have been a triumph, but it seems to have rather been assembled from the exploded shards of the concept, and is a failure. The difference between this film and the sort of short film being made today in France by students is stark. Japan has lost the edge in my opinion.

It should have been a fun, playful action-adventure-comedy starring sprightly anthropomorphic characters in a swashbuckling adventure in the mold of that classic of animated swashbuckling anime, Animal Treasure Island, which was the project's obvious inspiration. Instead, it's a lifeless, dull, insincere slog with nary a bit of excitement or spark. This is shocking because it was directed by Kazuhide Tomonaga and produced by Telecom - the animator and studio synonymous with the best breathless action-adventure animation moments in Lupin III. This should have been the team capable of creating that sort of excitement and reviving the spirit of the manga eiga of yore, which is something I for one would really, really love to see happen. This is the film I most wanted to love in the set, and see it take off into a franchise.

The animation didn't have to be brilliant for the action to work; the action scenes just weren't excitingly choreographed. The pacing was odd, with long stretches of nothing happening at moments when it felt more hustle was dramatically called for. There was way too much emphasis on the drama, and it didn't make sense. The whole scene on the boat after the escape felt off. All momentum suddenly disappears, and the pig is suddenly insistent on the kid throwing away the map for no reason. None of that felt necessary. Lightning striking the water afterwards, creating a big wave, just didn't even make any sense at all. The climax was anti-climactic. Instead of a big battle pitting the good guy against the bad guy, the baddie essentially flops around and defeats himself. The pig character was interesting and had potential as an interesting protagonist, although he felt a little borrowed from Crayon Shin-chan's Buriburizaemon - self-centered, shiftless, diminutive, begrudgingly good pig hero for hire.

Wasted potential, but this is the kind of anime I would like to see done right. As it stands it's too close to an anodyne kids show like Kaiketsu Zorori. It would need more action and punch to make it work.

わすれなぐも Wasurenagumo d. Toshihisa Kaiya, ad. Hideki Takahashi

An antiquarian bookseller releases an ancient spider monster curse and becomes beguiled by the creature. This outing by IG was by far the most pedestrian and conventional in the set. Visually it offers nothing new or interesting whatsoever. That said, I actually enjoyed it, much to my surprise. While all of the visual elements grated on me, particularly the antics of the spider character with her agonizingly painful anime girl face, the humor was subtle and amusing, and it felt like a bit of a lighthearted parody of past IG supernatural anime.

Director Toshihisa Kaiya finds himself at IG now, but he came from Ajia-do, like Masaaki Yuasa, where he worked under the masters, among other things, on a few episodes of Manga Nihon Mukashibanashi. He had less of an individual style than his mentors, rather showing himself versatile at adapting to the respective inimitable style of Osamu Kobayashi in Ookami Choja (watch) and Tsutomu Shibayama in Sarukani Gassen (watch), for example. He's more of a professional than an auteur; which is no swipe. Moving to IG makes sense for him.

In Wasurenagumo, little vestige of Ajia-do stylization is visible. The versatile, prolific, professional Kaiya deftly deploys a character design style and visual scheme that are entirely contemporary and unadventurous to tell an amusing ghost story interweaving past and present Japan.

Visually the style was classic IG realism lite, with body movement physics a bit more weighty than your usual anime, but passed through the sieve of anime expressive and acting conventions. The scene at the end where the characters run through the abandoned building, with its extremely angled perspectives, was apparently the work of a young animator named Shingo Takenaka. He has obviously studied Hiroyuki Okiura very closely.

Thursday, November 10, 2011

03:41:00 pm , 322 words, 3618 views     Categories: Animation, Movie, Lupin III, Telecom

Telecom Lupin movie #5: The Eternal Mermaid

We've gotten a new Telecom Lupin III film roughly once per decade so far, but that rule is soon to be broken. After doing the 2007 Elusive Mist TV special, Telecom is back with a new TV special next month: Seal of Blood: The Eternal Mermaid.

This time Teiichi Takiguchi of Grampa's Lamp directs and Satoshi Hirayama is replaced as the character designer by ex-Nippon Animation animator (and Studio 4°C co-founder) Yoshiharu Sato.

I'm reassured to see Teiichi Takiguchi at the helm, as he did a good job with Grampa's Lamp, but I can't help but feel apprehensive about whether it won't be another disappointment. I don't know whether Telecom has it in them anymore to make good Lupin like the old days. I don't expect it to be as good as Plot of the Fuma Clan, but I wish they could at least come close. At least the character designer has changed, although I suppose you can't entirely blame Satoshi Hirayama for the lack of good movement in The Elusive Mist.

Personally I'd love to see Yuzo Aoki come back to the show and bring on a bunch of today's wild young animators to make another Lupin film in the spirit of Mystery of Mamo or Gold of Babylon. But I doubt the TV station or the sponsors would be willing to accept such looseness anymore.

This month marks 40 years since the first Lupin III series produced by A Production began airing. Eternal Mermaid is thus going to be the 40th anniversary film. It would be a nice touch if some of the staff who worked on the original Lupin III TV series could make an appearance in Eternal Mermaid, although Otsuka already made a cameo appearance in The Elusive Mist. Rumors are circulating of a possible new TV series being produced in conjunction with the 40th anniversary, so perhaps we will see even more Telecom Lupin in the months to come.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

11:55:00 pm , 761 words, 3331 views     Categories: Animation, Movie, Lupin III, Telecom

Telecom Lupin movie #4: The Elusive Fog

30 years after Telecom worked on the second Lupin III TV series, they returned in 2007 with a TV special of their own production, with their own logo capping the end roll: The Elusive Fog. Dozens of TV specials and movies have been made in the intervening 30 years, but this was only Telecom's fourth Lupin film after Castle of Cagliostro (1979), Plot of the Fuma Clan (1987) and Farewell to Nostradamus (1995). This film harkens back to a character from the very first Lupin series: Mamo Kyosuke, the time-traveler who has it in for Lupin for some mysterious reason.

I'd like to say The Elusive Fog was a return to the standards of the early Telecom episodes of the second Lupin TV series, but it is unfortunately not. Everything here is too clean, too slow, too measured. There's no spark, no excitement. For one I don't like the excessively clean way the characters are drawn. There's no personality or spontaneity in the drawings the way there was in the second series. Here the drawings are all DOA. The ironic thing is that the shortage of schedule in the early Telecom Lupin productions may have contributed to producing good work. Here it looks like they had too much time to think about what they wanted to do.

Kazuhide Tomonaga and Yoshinobu Michihata tantalizingly occupy the two top spots in the key animator credits, so they clearly put their all into this. Tomonaga happily returned to drawing a car chase. He obviously did the car chase at the beginning. It was nice to see Lupin being chased by Zenigata in the old Fiat again, and there were a few nicely done shots in there, but it didn't have the tension of his early work. It wasn't choreographed in an exciting way, but more than that, it just felt slack and plain, without the little unexpected rapidfire movements that made the early chases so exciting to watch.

It would have been great if this throwback to the early Lupin work had been a harbinger of more of the same to come, but the rest didn't live up to the opening. With very few animators they were able to create some incredible episodes back then, but here they've got more than 50 key animators and yet there is nary an exciting action sequence in the whole film.

The character animation was also too tame. There were very few sections where the characters came alive and the movement had any kind of zip and good feeling in the timing. I assume Yoshinobu Michihata was responsible for those few moments, but overall the entire approach to character animation was lacking. The movement was just dull. What made those old Telecom productions so nice to watch is that the characters were fun to watch at every single solitary moment thanks to the fun the animators had in posing and moving the characters in all sorts of ways with split-second precision. Here it feels like the characters are encased in a character design that fits them like an excessively stiff suit.

Even the storytelling of Fuma Clan, which is weaker on the story and characterization front than Cagliostro for obvious reasons, felt stronger than the storytelling and character development and directing here. Even aside from the animation aspects, it didn't feel interesting to watch as a film. The pacing was sluggish, no developments were unexpected, no characters were believable.

This outing felt a little lighter overall than their previous Nostradamus outing, which had names like Atsuko Tanaka and Hiroyuki Aoyama involved, and had a big climactic section with a lot of nice animation. Unfortunately the latter two have now left Telecom, along with many others. Among the talented animators remaining are Kazuhide Tomonaga, Yoshinobu Michihata and Hisao Yokobori. But I don't know of any young names at Telecom with the same fire that those guys had at the beginning, so we might not see a new generation of Telecom animators with the same verve as that first generation. Times have changed. In a lot of productions there just isn't the sort of freedom to draw characters however you want the way there was in the old Lupin show.

Yasuo Otsuka, the patron saint of the Lupin anime franchise, made a guest appearance. Two, actually. He drew the 'eyecatch', which uses the same sound effect as the second TV series. Instead of Lupin tripping over his Benz, this time he brakes his Fiat too hard and the whole car flips forward and spits him out the sunroof. The second appearance... well, it's not hard to spot.

Sunday, November 6, 2011

05:51:00 pm , 1362 words, 24208 views     Categories: Animation, OVA, Telecom

Grampa's lamp

I just wrote about Telecom's very early work on Lupin. Well, they're still very active as both a subcontractor doing animation work on other people's shows and producing their own projects. Their latest was one of the other four Project A films released in 2010: Grampa's Lamp.

Set in the early decades of Japan's period of modernization around 1900, Grampa's Lamp traces the advent of modernity to Japan during its so-called "bunmei kaika" period in the late 1800s. It does so through the story of a boy growing up during those times. He begins by embracing the flood of changes entering his country, only to soon find himself irresistibly overtaken by that same flood. With surprising subtlety it paints a picture of the double-edged sword of modernization: for every step towards the future, something else is irretrievably lost.

Historical anime for children of this ilk is often heavy-handed and reductive, presenting an anti-war or other message in a way that is lacking the complexity and subtlety of real life, but I found Grampa's Lamp did a better job than most other period anime in balancing narrative clarity and simplicity with moral ambiguity and psychological complexity. I enjoyed it and found its characters believable. My only disappointment is that the drama leading towards the climax felt forced and unnecessary. It's like they felt obliged to create a dramatic climax but couldn't figure out how to do it.

Grampa's Lamp is pretty much unrecognizable as Telecom if you're looking for the hallmarks of late 70s Telecom like high-energy car chases and exhiliratingly improbable character calisthenics. The studio itself has gone through much over the intervening years, and this project itself much more low-key and down-to-earth in its goals. The film is more Only Yesterday than Cagliostro.

But what hasn't changed is the studio's philosophy of creating rich character animation. Everything moves, and moves in an interesting or meaningful way. The characters act out their emotions and personalities, and the way they behave is more realistic and believable than in typical anime, where the animators often fall back on stock movements. They behave like people, not anime characters. The directing isn't geared towards creating pretty images, but rather towards bringing the characters to life in animation.

Crowd scenes actually have moving people, not just a single drawing. Kids playing cops and robbers zip around adopting all sorts of poses. The old lady running the shop moves differently from the way the middle-aged waitress moves. When the protagonist assembles a lamp, each component of the action is meticulously depicted - pouring the lamp oil through the sieve into the body, wiping off the sieve, replacing the ladle into its bin, screwing back on the lamp, twisting the knob to raise the thread. And he does all these things with an ease and fluidity that clearly is the product of many years of experience. That's what it means for animation to communicate personality.

Kazuhide Tomonaga, who after his work on the second Lupin series went on to become one of Telecom's most important members through the decades, was the "Acting Supervisor" in Grampa's Lamp. This is a role I've never before seen in anime, and the presence of this role goes a long way to accounting for the quality of the character animation.

Unlike in a typical production, prior to drawing the layout and the genga, each animator was first obliged to draw a thumbnail outline of the action they intended for a shot. Only after Tomonaga inspected the thumbnails and approved them was the key animator allowed to move ahead with drawing the actual key animation. It might seem at first sight like adding this extra step might slow down production, but it probably actually has the opposite effect. It also avoids waste by making sure there's no need for retakes after the key animator has begun drawing a more finalized key animation drawing. On top of that, it increases the overall quality of the movements by forcing the animators to think about the movement first, separate from the drawings.

Drawing thumbnails was one of the tasks the animators of Grampa's Lamp were assigned as a part of Project A. The idea of using thumbnails was apparently something recommended by Yasuo Otsuka. He finds that many young animators today are unable to create everyday character acting. People draw cool poses or drawings, but forget the bigger picture. He suggested using thumbnails as a way to train their skill at conceptualizing movement. Having a thumbnail sketch of a movement also makes it easy to get input from superiors or colleagues about how to improve an action.

The first person credited in the key animation credits is Hisao Yokobori, who is a veteran Telecom animator who has done much good work in recent years. Presumably many of the names under him are the new faces who were being trained on the project.

I also had a chance to watch Production I.G.'s outing, Wardrobe Dwellers, but it was excruciatingly boring and uninteresting. I was looking forward to it to see what Kazuchika Kise would do as a director, as he's a fine animator, but the material just wasn't interesting enough to support the slow pace.


Earlier this year it was announced that four more films in the series will be released together next year under the moniker "Anime Mirai". Luckily Telecom is back with another film next year, and I was surprised to find out which film it is they're producing:

Telecom: Buta (d. Kazuhide Tomonaga)
Production I.G.: Wasurenagumo (d. Toshihisa Kaiya)
Shirokumi: Feigned Ignorance (d. PON Kozutsumi)
Answer Studio: Juju of the South Seas (d. Hiroshi Kawamata)

Six years ago I wrote a post about a project called Buta headed by a Frenchman named Christophe Ferreira. It would appear that the project had a rough time getting off the ground, and sadly Christophe is only credited with "Created by" in this particular film, so it is not the vision that he had originally been working towards. But it is nonetheless Telecom, and directed by Kazuhide Tomonaga no less, so it looks like it will be an exciting and fun action piece going back to the roots of what made Telecom so great.

You can see some images from the episode up on the official page at animemirai.jp. Apparently the project is now called Anime Mirai (Anime Future).

It would be nice if this could lead to an ongoing project that would foster the production of more episodes in that vein of freewheeling action adventure. I find it hard to believe they'll be able to revive the brilliance of the early Telecom films, but it's great to see they're trying to go in that direction. Interesting to note is that this film is presumably serving as on-hands training for several younger animators - which is basically what the early New Lupin III Telecom episodes were.

Speaking of which, supposedly a new Lupin III series is in production, so with any luck we may be able to see some new Telecom Lupin III episodes.

I must say I'm also quite curious about the Shirokumi film. It looks very beautiful, with its pared down black-and-white sketchy aesthetic. It's the only film in the project so far that doesn't look like regular anime. I'm glad they're greenlighting more visually unorthodox and creative projects like this too. The director directed many episodes of Manga Nihon Mukashibanashi under his real name, Kazuaki Kozutsumi, so he's a good choice for this kind of visual material. I'd like to see more Manga Nihon Mukashibanashi OBs given the chance to do this kind of higher-quality production. More recently he did an amusing series of super-short animation inserts about a monk and his cat. I love what he's able to do with so little. Just a few drawings in three seconds and each one tells a little story.

I was hoping to see Kazuyoshi Takeuchi's name when I saw that Answer Studio had done one of the films, as I liked what he did in Flag, but he's not involved. I'm still quite looking forward to it. Production I.G.'s film looks the least interesting, though I'm sure it will be competently done.

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Wednesday, November 2, 2011

05:31:00 pm , 5691 words, 9113 views     Categories: Animation, TV, Lupin III, Telecom

The animation of the second Lupin III TV series

The second Lupin III TV series ran from October 3, 1977 to October 6, 1980 - a tremendous run of 155 episodes in 3 years. It can be hard to know where to dig into such a long show to find the quality episodes if you don't have time to sit through all 155 episodes, so I thought I'd provide a guide to the animation of the second Lupin III TV series. (this is an updated version of this old post)

Essentially, the animation of this show was provided mainly by four studios: Tokyo Movie Shinsha, Oh Production, Telecom, and Topcraft. There may have been some freelance staff or other misc studios involved.

Tokyo Movie Shinsha was the main studio producing the show; the others were subcontractors, although Telecom was closely affiliated with TMS, having been formed just prior to the start of this show by the owner of TMS as a branch of TMS. You can pretty much tell which episode is done by which studio by looking at the names in the key animation credits, to say nothing of the animation, which differs dramatically depending on the animator and studio. Here's a basic breakdown of which animators belonged to which studio.

Animators of the four main Lupin III Part 2 studios

Tokyo Movie: Junzaburo Takahata, Yokoyama Hiromi, Koichi Maruyama, Hitoshi Oda, Masayoshi Arai, Sachiko Kodama, Toyoaki Emura, and others.

Oh Pro: Koshin Yonekawa, Tomonaga Kazuhide, Tsukasa Tannai, Kenichi Okamoto, Higashi Numajiri, Toshio Yamauchi, and Joji Manabe.

Telecom: Koichi Maruyama, Atsuko Tanaka, Michihata Yoshinobu, Nobuo Tomizawa, Yoko Tsukada, Keiko Hara, Yasunao Aoki, Tomonaga Kazuhide, Toshio Yamauchi, Masako Shinohara, and others.

Topcraft: Kazuyuki Kobayashi, Hidemi Kubo, Masahiro Yoshida, Hidekazu Ohara, and Mitsuru Hosotani.

Basically the episodes to really seek out are the Oh Pro episodes with Kazuhide Tomonaga, the Telecom episodes, and the Yuzo Aoki episodes. I've also heard that Junzaburo Takahata did a lot of good work on the show, though I haven't explored his episodes yet. Here's a short overview of some nice bits in each group.

Lupin III Part 2 Oh Pro episodes

EpisodeKey animators
#4: ネッシーの唄が聞こえる
I can hear Nessie's song
Koshin Yonekawa, Kenichi Okamoto, Kazuhide Tomonaga
#8: ベネチア超特急
Venice super-express
Koshin Yonekawa, Kenichi Okamoto, Kazuhide Tomonaga
#13: サンフランシスコ大追跡
Great chase in San Francisco
Tsukasa Tannai
#14: カリブ海の大冒険
Adventure on the Carib sea
Kazuhide Tomonaga
#16: 二つの顔のルパン
The two faces of Lupin
Tannai Tsukasa
#20: 追いつめられたルパン
Lupin cornered
Kazuhide Tomonaga, Kenichi Okamoto
#25: 必殺鉄トカゲ見参
The killer iron lizards
Kazuhide Tomonaga, Kenichi Okamoto
#31: 白夜に向かって撃て
Shoot into the dark of the night
Kazuhide Tomonaga, Tsukasa Tannai, Kenichi Okamoto
#37: ジンギスカンの埋蔵金
Genghis Khan's buried treasure
Tannai Tsukasa, Kenichi Okamoto, Numajiri Higashi
#41: かぐや姫の宝を探せ
Find the treasure of Kaguya Hime
Tannai Tsukasa, Kenichi Okamoto, Numajiri Higashi
#45: 殺しはワインの匂い
Killing smells like wine (Yuzo Aoki storyboard)
Tannai Tsukasa, Kenichi Okamoto, Numajiri Higashi
#55: 花吹雪 謎の五人衆(前篇)
Snowstorm: The mysterious five (1/2)
Tannai Tsukasa, Kenichi Okamoto, Numajiri Higashi
#63: 罠には罠を!
A trap for a trap!
Tsukasa Tannai, Kazuhide Tomonaga, Higashi Numajiri, Toshio Yamauchi, Kenichi Okamoto
#67: ルパンの大西遊記
Lupin's great journey to the west
Tsukasa Tannai, Higashi Numajiri, Kenichi Okamoto, Toshio Yamauchi
#71: ルパン対新選組
Lupin vs. the New Shinsengumi
Tsukasa Tannai, Higashi Numajiri, Kenichi Okamoto, Toshio Yamauchi
#92: マダムと泥棒四重奏
Quartet for madam and thief
Toshio Yamauchi, Higashi Numajiri, Kenichi Okamoto, Kazuhide Tomonaga, Joji Manabe
#98: 父っつあんのいない日
A day without pops
Toshio Yamauchi, Higashi Numajiri, Kenichi Okamoto, Kazuhide Tomonaga, Joji Manabe

I wrote about Koshin Yonekawa and Murata Koichi's studio Oh Pro before. Oh Pro was heavily involved in the first half of the second Lupin III series as an animation subcontractor. There was one particular animator who was working at Oh Pro at the time who stood out from the pack. His presence made the Oh Pro episodes something to look forward to when they rolled around: Kazuhide Tomonaga.

Kazuhide Tomonaga: Oh Pro's rising star

Kazuhide Tomonaga was unmistakably the most flamboyant and exciting animator to work on the second Lupin III series. He did a large amount of animation on the show from Oh Production between episodes 4 and 98, virtually all of it very distinct and thrilling to watch. After a gap of a few dozen episodes he then returned with a little bit of work in the last few Telecom episodes. The Oh Pro episodes to look for are the ones with him in the credits.

Kazuhide Tomonaga is best known as the animator who created convincing animation of spaceships flying realistically in the original Yamato series as well as other Toei robot shows. He created the lavishly animated catastrophe scenes in Galaxy Express 999 movie. He was one of the pioneers of more realistic mecha and effects animation. Toshiyuki Inoue is among the many animators influenced by him. Yoshinori Kanada and Kazuhide Tomonaga were, surprisingly, kindred spirits in the 70s. They had a friendly rivalry going. The climactic catastrophe scene in the Galaxy Express 999 movie sees them doing a tag-team of incredible animation as one animates one shot and the other then animates the next shot, etc.

As if it weren't enough that he influenced many of his compatriots, he went on to do a lot of work in foreign co-productions like Winnie the Pooh, Batman, Animaniacs, Superman, etc. that was widely hailed in the west. A few years ago he returned to a Telecom TV show and did animation on Tide-Line Blue under the late Iida Umanosuke. He continues to be very active as an animator, although he is no longer the wild animator he once was. His early work is particularly delightful to re-visit because it is so playful and free and full of youthful vitality.

Tomonaga's work in this show reveals a side of him that might not be as well known. He creates hilarious and exciting character animation full of inventive posing. He uses very quick timing to pack short moves full of fun postures that make the movement exciting to watch and revealing to step through in slo-mo. At other times he creates minutely precise realistic mecha and effects animation that seems to foreshadow what would come in things like the Nemo pilot. He is one of those people like Yasuo Otsuka who has movement in his blood, who was born to be an animator.

Kazuhide Tomonaga episode highlights

Tomonaga did one solo episode in the show: episode 14. It's pretty low-key most of the time, but there are little bits here and there where the animation suddenly zips to life. He creates quick movements that are full of fun drawings and poses that pass by very quickly. The movements are fun to watch, and even more fun to step through in slo-mo to appreciate all the drawings he's packed in. Choice moments include the policeman choking on his cigar pictured below, the scene in the airport, Zenigata kicking down the door and trying to grab Lupin, Zenigata running into the cave entrance wall, and Lupin falling into the trap.

Incidentally, when Zenigata bangs his fist on the table and causes the policeman to choke on his cigar, his hand lands next to an inkpot labelled "OH". Why would a policeman have an ink pot on his desk? And why is it labelled "OH"? It's another little in-joke like the one pictured above. (The one pictured above is from episode 25.)

Episode 20 has a lot of funny drawings of the German soldiers and the Fuhrer character, but there isn't one particular section that screams out Tomonaga like in some of the other episodes. His work seems to peek through here and there. The shot where the soldiers attack the dummy Fujiko and Lupin is particularly nice, though I'm not exactly sure it's by Tomonaga. The timing of the animation where Zenigata hits the water after he's thrown out of the window by Lupin and Fujiko is great - he stops dead for a moment when he hits the surface, and only after a second slowly sinks down. Another nice part is the Charlie Chaplin Dictator homage sequence where the Fuhrer dances with the globe but winds up getting smacked in the face with it and knocked off the table. Tomonaga also may have done some of the tank action and explosions in the second half.

Episode 25 is also pretty low-key in terms of the animation, but there are still little bits here and there in the first half that have a nice feeling, like the part where the officer announces that Lupin has escaped. The part obviously screaming Tomonaga comes in the second half with some very nice animation of a boat. In particular, the shot of the boat jumping over the missiles chasing it shows off Tomonaga's genius for very quick timing the likes of which few people this side of Toshiyuki Inoue can achieve.

The dogfight in the next Tomonaga episode, episode 31, is another great mecha action sequence like the boat sequence that shows off Tomonaga's skill at very detailed and realistic animation. One shot in particular where a plane gets shot is amazing in the perfect timing of the animation. These two shows make you realize why Tomonaga was such an influence on people as a mecha/effects animator in the 1970s. He was one of the first people in Japan in the modern age to draw such detailed and realistic animation that at the same time was incredibly exciting to watch.

Tomonaga also seems to have done little bits here and there throughout the episode, such as the still shots of the vikings and the delightfully ludicrous animation of Zenigata riding the torpedo at the end of episode 31. There seem to be two animators in Tomonaga: an animator who creates crazy character antics full of hilarious poses, sort of in the vein of Yoshinori Kanada but more fluid and thought-through rather than pose-to-pose, and an animator who creates realistic effects and mecha animation. Kanada himself was also known for both his character and FX animation.

There are lots of other nice Tomonaga bits buried here and there in the Oh Pro episodes, but I won't go into too much detail save to mention that episode 8 has a considerable amount of good early Tomonaga character animation work, and the musical sequence at the very end of episode 63 is short but sweet.

Lupin III Part 2 Telecom episodes

EpisodeKey animators
#72: スケートボード殺人事件
The skateboard murder mystery
Yoko Saeki, Miwako Takagi Masami Ozaki, Keiko Shimazu, Atsuko Tanabe, Harumi Shibata
#77: 星占いでルパンを逮捕
Arrest Lupin using horoscope
Koichi Maruyama, Atsuko Tanaka, Keiko Hara, Yoko Tsukada, Yoshinobu Michihata
#82: 最後の差し入れはカップラーメン
I'll have cup ramen for my last meal
Tsukasa Tannai, Koichi Maruyama, Keiko Hara, Yoshinobu Michihata, Toshiyuki Biruma
#84: 復讐はルパンにまかせろ
Leave revenge to Lupin
Nobuo Tomizawa, Atsuko Tanaka, Yoko Tsukada, Yoshihiro Shida, Miwako Takagi
#99: 荒野に散ったコンバット・マグナム
Combat magnum scattered in the field
Nobuo Tomizawa, Koichi Maruyama, Atsuko Tanaka, Keiko Hara, Yoko Tsukada, Yoshinobu Michihata
#105: 怪奇鬼首島に女が消えた
A woman disappears on eerie Demon Head island
Yoshinobu Michihata, Yoko Tsukada, Toshiyuki Biruma, Yasunao Aoki, Yayoi Kobayashi
#143: マイアミ銀行襲撃記念日
Miami bank heist memorial
Nobuo Tomizawa, Koichi Maruyama, Kazuhide Tomonaga, Yayoi Kobayashi
#145: 死の翼アルバトロス
Albatross, wings of death
Nobuo Tomizawa, Koichi Maruyama, Eiko Hara, Junko Tsutsumi, Yayoi Kobayashi
#151: ルパン逮捕ハイウェイ作戦
Arrest Lupin Highway Plan
Kazuhide Tomonaga, Yoshinobu Michihata, Eiko Hara, Ryoko Kashiwada
#153: 神様のくれた札束
The god-given bills
Nobuo Tomizawa, Atsuko Tanaka, Masako Shinohara, Junko Tsutsumi
#155: さらば愛しきルパンよ
Farewell, dear Lupin
Kazuhide Tomonaga, Toshio Yamauchi, Yoshinobu Michihata, Masako Shinohara, Atsuko Tanaka, Ryoko Kashiwada

The best known of the Telecom episodes are the two late episodes directed by Miyazaki under the pen name "Terekomu" or Telecom: 145 and 155. These are indeed the crowning jewels of the show, but prior to these episodes Telecom produced some of the finest episodes in the show. Pretty much every Telecom episode is worth seeking out.

Background about Telecom's involvement

If you noticed some overlap between the animators of TMS, Oh Pro and Telecom, it's because there was a gradual migration of animator staff from TMS and Oh Pro (and Nippon Animation) to Telecom over the course of 1979 when Telecom started to work on the TV show. The reason why is because Telecom didn't have any good staff.

Telecom had been formed not long before, and when Yasuo Otuska arrived at Telecom at TMS head Yutaka Fujioka's invitation after finishing his work on Hayao Miyazaki's Conan to train the animators, he found that the 40 or so newly hired (amateur) animators were essentially useless. They'd been working on the Mamo movie until December 1978, when the movie was released, but they had made life a living hell for animation directors Yuzo Aoki and Yoshio Kabashima.

Otsuka decided the best way to train them in short order was not to give them lectures about animation, but to set them to work on an actual TV production. So he chose 6 of the animators and set them to the task of animating episode 72. The results were so execrable that Otsuka had to redraw most of the animation himself, and he maintains that it is the worst piece of animation he ever worked on in his career.

Obviously not wanting a repeat of that, Otsuka started to bring in outside staff one by one to bring up the level of things. (Incidentally, the six animators of that episode never show up in the credit rolls again.) The first of those were Atsuko Tanaka and Keiko Hara, who had left Shin-Ei for Telecom just prior to Otsuka's arrival. Koichi Maruyama, who had been working mostly alongside Junzaburo Takahata on the TMS episodes, appears in the Telecom episodes from this point onwards, though I don't know whether he was officially Telecom or worked from TMS. This team did their first Lupin work for Telecom on for episode 77.

More staff came in with each new episode, raising the quality gradually with each episode: Tannai Tsukasa joined from Oh Pro in episode 82. Toshio Yamauchi joined from Oh Pro later after first working on Cagliostro. Nobuo Tomizawa joined from Nippon Animation in episode 84. Nobuo Tomizawa had worked on almost every episode of Miyazaki's Conan alongside Masako Shinohara. Masako Shinohara stayed on to work on Takahata's Anne before finally also leaving for Telecom to work on Miyazaki's Cagliostro. She then worked on two of the remaining Telecom Lupin episodes.

The first six Telecom episodes (72, 77, 82, 84, 99, 105) were animated between January and June 1977 and aired between March and October 1977. After this there's a gap of several dozen episodes without any Telecom episodes as the team switched to animating the Cagliostro movie that had gotten OKed 3 days after the release of Mamo.

For Cagliostro, Otsuka set his best Telecom animators to the task of animating the movie. Kazuhide Tomonaga temporarily left Oh Pro to work on the film. Tomonaga had presumably caught the eye of Otsuka due to the remarkable work Tomonaga had done on the series from Oh Pro up until that point. Tomonaga wound up staying and he worked on the remaining Telecom episodes. By this time all the big animator stars of Telecom were there: Atsuko Tanaka, Kazuhide Tomonaga, Toshio Yamauchi, Michihata Yoshinobu, Masako Shinohara. These are the folks who make the late Telecom episodes so impressive.

Cagliostro was animated between July and October 1979 and released in December 1979. Afterwards the staff immediately set to work on more Lupin episodes. The Telecom episodes that follow the work on Cagliostro are heavily influenced by Miyazaki's work on the film in terms of the drawings, acting, layouts, and directing. Miyazaki himself returned to direct two of these episodes.

Telecom episode animation highlights

Most of the Telecom episodes are must-see in terms of the animation, though they get better towards the end, reaching a peak in the two Miyazaki-directed episodes. If you liked Cagliostro and Plot of the Fuma Clan and are clamoring to see more Telecom goodness, this is the place you want to be.

Thought it might not seem apparent from the finished product, episode 72 was nothing short of a disaster in Yasuo Otsuka's book. But honestly, it doesn't look that bad. It's clearly rough around the edges and the movement is lacking and ill-developed, because for one the great animators hadn't arrived at Telecom yet, and Otsuka had his hands full bringing the drawings up to par. But this episode is nonetheless a delight to watch because most of the drawings are Otsuka's. Episode 72 features the most Otsuka drawings in the whole series. In other episodes Otsuka helped out with the mecha like the cars and guns, but in this episode he did actual drawing correction. The ineptness of the animators of this episode may have been a burden to Otsuka, but it leaves us with one more episode of Otsuka drawings to savor. Otsuka had just finished working on Conan, and a lot of this episode looks like it could have come straight out of Conan. The Colombo-styled kid detective even looks like Conan and is voiced by the same voice-actor, adding to the impression.

Episode 77 features the first animation in Lupin by Atsuko Tanaka. Tanaka didn't have much experience by the time she worked on the Telecom episodes of Lupin, and she didn't work on nearly as many episodes as Tomonaga did - she only worked on 77, 84, 99, 153 and 155. I suspect she did part where Goemon tries to slice Lupin up in the second half of episode 77. It's short but sweet. You can sense that whoever did it, if it was her, has an instinct for animated movement.

Episode 84 features some animation by Atsuko Tanaka, but it's not an exciting action scene. The scenes with Zenigata guarding the jewel and falling asleep in episode 84 have a lot of fun facial expressions presumably by Atsuko Tanaka. If they're not by her, I don't know who could have done them. Yoshinobu Michihata turned into a great animator, but I don't know if he was drawing this kind of thing back then.

Episode 99 is probably the best of the six early Telecom episodes, the ones done before Cagliostro. The reason is partly because it's storyboarded and directed by Shigetsugu Yoshida, who would be the assistant director of Cagliostro and direct two of the post-Cagliostro episodes. The highlight of the episode is the closing scene where Jigen runs around collecting and re-assembling the pieces of his magnum while being fired upon by the baddie. It's one of the most exciting sequences in the series thanks to the fast-paced animation, quick cutting and the way Jigen is carefully depicted assembling each piece of the magnum back together. This section may have been animated by Nobuo Tomizawa. It's got a great feeling of tensions as an action scene should have. The Luger the baddie is firing is realistically rendered with equally maniacal detail, down to the unique toggle-joint action of the Luger.

After then doing episode 105, the Telecom team set to work on Cagliostro. The first episode of the TV series they did after coming back was episode 143, which is a neglected minor masterpiece of slapstick Telecom comedy action. It's got a great combination of writer-storyboarder-director-animation the likes of which only came around once in the series. It's scripted by Yoshio Urasawa, storyboarded by Yuzo Aoki, directed by Shigetsugu Yoshida, and animated by Telecom. More gag action masterpieces might have been born if this team worked together a few more times. It's funny how in the late Telecom episodes Fujiko looks and behaves completely differently; she's not the sexy backstabber of the rest of the show, she's just another member of the gang.

Most of all, it just moves like crazy. The first half of the episode alone feels like it used more animation drawings than most TV episodes. The Telecom episodes typically used more than 7000 drawings per episode. This episode in particular feels like it's moving all the time, and the movement is all interesting. The opening scene at the bank is hilarious, with the way something breaks unexpectedly every once in a while. The underwater chase with Zenigata on the beach is full of lively movement. And the rumpus in the bank in the second half is full of crazy animation. As is typical with Yuzo Aoki's storyboards, you have a scene that makes great use of space, with the people flying around, giving the animator freedom to have fun and pack the scene with lots of silly antics.

Kazuhide Tomonaga is involved, but pretty much all of the animation in the episode is fun and lively. I think the credits in the late Telecom episodes are listed in the order, rather than as usual by the amount of animation drawn, because of the way Telecom assigned their animation - each person had a big chunk of 50 or so shots. So you have one big section by Nobuo Tomizawa, followed by a big section by Koichi Maruyama, etc. Accordingly, and judging by the style, Tomonaga probably did the part in the bank where the money flies all over the place. You can identify him from the wild drawings of the faces and the hands, which look like the fingers are growing straight out of the wrist.

Episode 151 is an exciting episode full of great Telecom car chases and fine attention to detail in the directing and the acting. This episode feels very different from all the Lupin episodes that came before because the characters do things not dictated by the story. For example the way Lupin walks over to the pickup truck while waiting for Jigen to get it started and idly pokes it. The directing is just more convincing, the characters feel more alive and real. Unlike before, all of the animation in the episode has a nice feeling, be in the acting or the staging, even the quiet scenes. All of the staff had clearly been invigorated and inspired by the experience of working under Miyazaki, most notably the storyboarder and director, Shigetsugu Yoshida.

Tomonaga's section in the episode is a real delight. After Tomonaga worked on Cagliostro on the opening car chase sequence where the car famously climbs the cliff, and he somehow manages to make it look almost plausible thanks to his incredible animation, in episode 151 Tomonaga drew a kind of encore to this sequence, with a Lupin driving full-bore through fields, a river, over cliffs, etc. Tomonaga had this weird habit of drawing the humans really big in comparison with the vehicles. He did the same in Cagliostro, but it's more extreme here. Jigen and Lupin look like they barely fit into the car. The sequence where the car leaps over the cliff in particular is pure genius and one of my favorite Tomonaga bits.

You can also see little Yasuo Otsuka touches in this episode here and there, notably the loving detail lavished on the vehicles like the Fiat that Lupin drives and the old pickup truck that Jigen picks up. Anyone else would have drawn some generic pickup, but Otsuka, historical car buff that he is, took it as an opportunity to draw one of his favorite cars, the Bedford QLT military tractor-trailer.

Looking different from the rest of the show is something that can be said about all of the Telecom episodes, especially the Miyazaki-influenced later ones. The reason is supposedly that Otsuka requested that the show's animation directors not touch the Telecom episodes. I've heard rumors that the TV station airing the show even refused a few of the Telecom episodes at first when they saw them due to how different they looked before finally relenting, though I'm not sure if that's true or not. Shots like this from episode 151 could have come straight out of Cagliostro:

Episode 153 is the last of the four Telecom Lupin episodes storyboarded and directed by Shigetsugu Yoshida (82, 99, 151, 153). Where episode 143 is slapstick comedy and episode 151 is action, episode 153 is a more drama-oriented episode. It's not dramatic in the sense of high-drama. It's just more leisurely and low-key, without a big action scene or wild antics. The acting style of the characters feels close to the feeling of Miyazaki's interpretation of Lupin.

Attention to detail is one thing about this episode that makes it enjoyable to watch despite the fact that it's actually a little slow and tedious compared with the other more action-packed Telecom episodes. The beautiful backgrounds and gentle pacing make it one of the most watchable Lupin episodes. There's the way the money is all realistically depicted as different currencies, the way when the armored car is lifted by the helicopter the wheels shift down subtly as the weight of the car is taken off the wheels. Then there's the little things the characters do that are unrelated to the story or script that make them seem like living people, and make the scene fun to watch by filling it various behavior at all moments. For example, the way Goemon swats a mosquito as he's waiting, or the way Lupin tosses back popcorn and then looks at the empty bag, blows it up and pops it while he's talking to Jigen.

If you noticed the way the highlights in Lupin's eyes swish around in a circle once while he's giving the faux inspirational speech about building a church, that was something that was invented around this time. It's come to be a stock action in a lot of anime when a character is experiencing strong emotions. Tetsuya Takeuchi took it to the extreme in his Honey and Clover episode where the highlights swirl around like a whirlpool.

The animation highlight is the acting of Zenigata in the first half after he's given the laxative. There are a lot of really great expressions there. The animators do a great job of capturing Zenigata's anguish. For example, when he gets a sudden urge to go while talking to his superior, he doesn't just turn around and walk out the door, he bolts for the door, first smashes flat into it out of excess eagerness to get through the door before he's finally able to unlatch the bolt, and then he flies out. Telecom's animators were great at making their characters act out their feelings like this in a way that is fun to watch as animation.

Episode 145 and episode 155 were the two episodes directed by Hayao Miyazaki. I recommend watching these after you've watched everything else, because otherwise you'll be disappointed with everything else. These episodes did indeed set a new gold standard for the quality of a TV episode, which was perhaps only met by Miyazaki's own episodes of Sherlock Hound a few years later.

I won't bother describing these, as they're the two episodes of the second Lupin TV series that everybody has seen, but I'll just point out which spots were done by two of the star animators, Atsuko Tanaka and Kazuhide Tomonaga.

Episode 145 begins with the memorable sequence of the Lupin gang peacefully eating some sukiyaki when they're rudely interrupted by a passing gunfight. After doing the spaghetti scene in Cagliostro, Miyazaki decided that Atsuko Tanaka was his animator for eating scenes. He had her animate the sukiyaki scene at the beginning of episode 145, though for some reason she isn't credited. A few years later in the Jarinko Chie movie Takahata used her to animate the scene were the okonomiyaki cook starts sobbing while he's cooking and winds up dripping snot all over the okonomiyaki, which his unwitting customer scarfs down with gusto. In the climactic last episode, 155, in contrast, Tanaka animated the scene where the Lupin gang faces down their imitators.

Tomonaga Kazuhide seems to have been the one who animated the mid-air battle and Fujiko's fight in episode 145, even though he, too, isn't credited. In episode 155 he animated the scene at the beginning of the episode where the tank goes on a rampage in the middle of town chasing down the flying contraption. Both are among Tomonaga's best. It's baffling why both Tanaka and Tomonaga weren't credited in 145 even though they contributed some of the episode's best animation. Masako Shinohara also supposedly did uncredited work in episode 145.

Lupin III Part 2 Yuzo Aoki episodes

EpisodeKey animators
#20: 追いつめられたルパン
Lupin cornered
Uncredited key animation?
#30: モロッコの風は熱く
The wind in Morocco is hot
Key animation (first half)
#35: ゴリラギャングを追っかけろ
Chase after the gorilla gang
Key animation (second half)
#45: 殺しはワインの匂い
Killing smells like wine
Storyboard
#50: 私が愛したルパン(前編)
The Lupin I loved (1/2)
Storyboard
#51: 私が愛したルパン(後編)
The Lupin I loved (2/2)
Storyboard
#57: コンピューターかルパンか
Lupin or the computer?
Storyboard
#69: とっつあんの惚れた女
The woman pops fell for
Key animation (second half)
#74: 恐怖のカメレオン人間
The terror of the chameleon people
Key animation (only a little)
#78: ロボットの瞳にダイヤが光る
When diamonds sparkle in the robot's eyes
Storyboard
#96 ルパンのお料理天国
Lupin's cooking heaven
Key animation (second half)
#106: 君はネコぼくはカツオ節
You're a cat, I'm a dried fish
Storyboard
#107: 結婚指輪は呪いの罠
The wedding ring is a cursed trap
Storyboard
#117: チューインガム変装作戦
Chewing gum disguise plan
Storyboard
#124: 1999年ポップコーンの旅 1999
A Popcorn Odyssey
Storyboard
#128: 老婆とルパンの泥棒合戦
Thieving contest between Lupin and the old lady
Storyboard
#129: 次元に男心の優しさを見た
Jigen has a kind heart
Storyboard
#134: ルパン逮捕頂上作戦
Plan to arrest Lupin at the summit
Storyboard
#138: ポンペイの秘宝と毒蛇
Bombay's hidden treasure and poisonous snake
Storyboard
#143: マイアミ銀行襲撃記念日
Miami bank heist memorial
Storyboard
#146: ルパン華麗なる敗北
Lupin's lovely defeat
Storyboard
#149: ベールをはいだメッカの秘宝
Unveiling Mecca's hidden treasure
Storyboard

Yuzo Aoki the animator

Yuzo Aoki stands out in stark contrast from the style of the Telecom episodes. Aoki's work is highly stylized, abstract and cartoonish compared with the fluid action and sleek dramaturgy of the Telecom episodes. He uses a minimum of drawings to achieve his impact, rather than relying on fluid animation like Telecom, creating sometimes jarringly spare animation. Aoki is at his best when creating bizarre angular poses. He creates an irresistible rhythm with his strange, stuttering timing. His physical forms are angular, full of straight lines and unexpected symmetries. His layouts are also quite appealing and formalistic rather than naturalistic. He's one of the great representatives of the A Pro school, obviously strongly influenced by his mentor Tsutomu Shibayama, who created the highly stylized designs of the characters in Ganso Tensai Bakabon. As it happens, in a telling coincidence, Ganso Tensai Bakabon just happens to have been the show that preceded the second Lupin III series, which took over in exactly the same time slot on the same TV station, NTV.

Here are some of the best Aoki episodes. He supposedly drew episode 30 all by himself, but I think he only did the first half. The first half has a lot of great drawings of the Gadaffi lookalike and his mercenaries. The car chase at beginning of second half of episode 35 has some great layouts. The scene in the barn in the second half of episode 69 is one of his best scenes in the show. Everything about it is great - the drawings, the timing, the way the story ties into the animation. Classic Aoki. He drew some of the funny poses of the Lupin gang pretending they drank the poisoned water in the second half of episode 74. And he drew a lot of fun drawings of the crazy banquetgoers who want to eat Lupin in the second half of episode 96, which ends with a pie fight straight out of the Three Stooges.

Aoki also appears to have done little bits of animation uncredited here and there to help fill in the gaps. For example, the part in episode 20 after Lupin fishes the wig off the Fuhrer character during his speech where the Fuhrer hides under his podium and the soldiers shoot down the helicopter feels very much like Aoki.

Yuzo Aoki the storyboarder

Those are all episodes where you can sample Aoki's drawings. But Aoki's work in the latter half of the show is mostly storyboards. He did draw some uncredited animation here and there, but for the most part it's not quite as easy to sniff out the Aoki character in these episodes. What they do have in common is that they usually provide for a lot of crazy animation making extensive use of lots of character animation and physical space.

The aforementioned episode 99 was a Yoshio Urazawa script; his scripts are usually totally outlandish. There are several other Aoki-Urasawa pairings (78, 106, 117, 124, 128, 138, 143), and they're mostly all crazy slapstick episodes like this. The best one is undoubtedly 78, which features animation by Yoshio Kabashima. One of the craziest is episode 124, which features an inventor who invents a popcorn machine that launches itself into orbit. The animation by Topcraft is very active and exuberant, if sloppy and not particularly exciting per se. My mouth was agape at the insanity of what I was seeing during the secenes where the popcorn machine went out of control and rocketed into the sky, and where the popcorn machine goes berserk at the end, filling the building with popcorn. The music in this episode is also unique. They abruptly stick in clips from famous classical pieces at certain spots in a way that does a great job of heightening the absurdity of the whole situation.

Aoki Yuzo also storyboarded, directed and animated the fourth opening, which is a good place to get a starting sense of how to identify his style, with the interesting timing and more stylized forms. It's a big contrast with the much more fluid and movemented animation in the previous opening where Lupin jumps into the car and the camera does a 360 around his head. Aoki's opening is all about interesting forms and colors. It's stylized rather than realistic, with retro colors and shapes and a playful atmosphere. The shape of Goemon's oni mask is deliciously Aoki, as is the very squared shape of his body. Aoki's characters often have a very squared, blocky or angular appearance. I love the extremely limited timing and flat form of the car bomb explosion at the beginning.

Yuzo Aoki's roots with Lupin go deep. He was the animator of the very first scene in the first Lupin III series, the racing scene. At the age of 19 he was called a genius by Yasuo Otsuka, who remarks that Aoki was the only person other than himself able to draw Lupin's car in the show, the Mercedes Benz SSK. Prior to the second TV series Aoki was an animation director of the Mamo film alongside Yoshio Kabashima, helping to give that film its unique look with his lanky character drawings. Aoki went on to be heavily involved in the third Lupin III TV series aired 1984-1985. He set the tone for the show by bringing the characters closer to the original Monkey Punch designs than they'd ever been or ever would be again. He was also the character designer, animation director and storyboarder of the Babylon film produced as a companion-piece to the third TV series. He's one of the few people who were deeply involved in every one of the canonical early Lupin III productions.

Here's a selection of images from these episodes to give a sense of Aoki's visual style.


Lupin III Part 2 full key animator listing

Color codes: Oh Pro, Telecom, Yuzo Aoki


1横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
児玉兼嗣
Kenji Kodama
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
2田中享
Atsushi[?] Tanaka



3山崎猛
Takeshi Yamazaki
大宅幸男
Yukio Ohyake
一川孝久
Takahisa Ichikawa

4米川功真
Koshin Yonekawa
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga

5児玉兼嗣
Kenji Kodama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama

6横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata


7朝倉隆
Takashi Asakura
伊藤誠
Makoto Ito


8米川功真
Koshin Yonekawa
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga

9朝倉隆
Takashi Asakura
伊藤誠
Makoto Ito


10山崎猛
Takeshi Yamazaki
大宅幸男
Yukio Ohyake
一川孝久
Takahisa Ichikawa

11児玉兼嗣
Kenji Kodama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama

12横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata


13丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai



14友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga



15佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji


16丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai



17横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
18野沢和夫
Kazuo Nozawa
雨宮英雄
Hideo Amemiya
春山行雄
Yukio Haruyama

19佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji


20友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto


21山崎猛
Takeshi Yamazaki



22横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
23佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji


24小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
河田章子
Shoko Kawada


25友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto


26横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda

27佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji


28井口忠一
Chuichi Iguchi
田辺由憲
Yoshinori Tanabe


29小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
吉田正広
Masahiro Yoshida


30青木悠三
Yuzo Aoki
31友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto

32横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
33佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji


34小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
野田作樹
Saki Noda
横山準一
Junichi Yokoyama

35青木悠三
Yuzo Aoki
田辺由憲
Yoshinori Tanabe


36横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
37丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi

38辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
木下ゆうき
Yuuki Kinoshita

39正延宏三
Kozo Masanobu
野田作樹
Saki Noda


40横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
41丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi

42辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
木下ゆうき
Yuuki Kinoshita

43坂井文雄
Fumio Sakai



44正延宏三
Kozo Masanobu
野田作樹
Saki Noda


45丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi

46横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
47辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
木下ゆうき
Yuuki Kinoshita

48横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
49野田作樹
Saki Noda
高倉健夫
Takeo Takakura


50丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
51辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
木下ゆうき
Yuuki Kinoshita

52横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
松田重治
Shigeharu Matsuda

53横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai

54若原真吾
Shingo Wakahara
池上栄一
Eiichi Ikegami
林弘
Hiroshi Hayashi

55丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto

56辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
木下ゆうき
Yuuki Kinoshita

57若原真吾
Shingo Wakahara
池上栄一
Eiichi Ikegami
林弘
Hiroshi Hayashi

58藤岡正宣
Masanobu Fujioka
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi


59横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai

60尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura

61辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
佐々木正広
Masahiro Sasaki
木下ゆうき
Yuuki Kinoshita

62若原真吾
Shingo Wakahara
池上栄一
Eiichi Ikegami
林弘
Hiroshi Hayashi

63丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
64高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
65辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki

66横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama



67丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
68高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
69青木悠三
Yuzo Aoki
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki

70辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji



71丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
72佐伯洋子
Yoko Saeki
高木美和子
Miwako Takagi
尾崎真佐美
Masami Ozaki
島津佳子
Keiko Shimazu
田辺厚子
Atsuko Tanabe
柴田春美
Harumi Shibata
73高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
74横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
坂井文雄
Fumio Sakai
青木悠三
Yuzo Aoki
75藤岡正宣
Masanobu Fujioka
佐久間信和
Nobukazu Sakuma
飯山嘉昌
Yoshiaki Iiyama

76辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji




77丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
田中敦子
Atsuko Tanaka
原恵子
Keiko Hara
塚田洋子
Yoko Tsukada
道籏義宣
Yoshinobu Michihata
78椛島義夫
Yoshio Kabashima
山崎タケル
Takeru Yamazaki
小野隆哉
Takaya Ono
大武正枝
Masae Ohtake
79高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
80横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
81山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto

82丹内司
Tsukasa Tannai
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
原恵子
Keiko Hara
道籏義宣
Yoshinobu Michihata
比留間敏之
Toshiyuki Biruma
83辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji



84富沢信雄
Nobuo Tomizawa
田中敦子
Atsuko Tanaka
塚田洋子
Yoko Tsukada
志田欣弘
Yoshihiro Shida
高木美和子
Miwako Takagi
85高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
86山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto

87横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
坂巻貞彦
Sadayoshi Sakamaki
88辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji



89高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
90横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
坂巻貞彦
Sadayoshi Sakamaki
91山崎猛
Takeshi Yamazaki
小野隆哉
Takaya Ono
大竹正枝
Masae Ohtake
宮林英子
92山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
真鍋譲二
Joji Manabe
93藤岡正宣
Masanobu Fujioka
佐久間信和
Nobukazu Sakuma
飯山嘉昌
Yoshiaki Iiyama

94辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


95高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
96青木悠三
Yuzo Aoki
坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki


97横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
98山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
沼尻東
Numajiri Higashi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto
友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
真鍋譲二
Joji Manabe
99富沢信雄
Nobuo Tomizawa
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
田中敦子
Atsuko Tanaka
原恵子
Keiko Hara
塚田洋子
Yoko Tsukada
道籏義宣
Yoshinobu Michihata
100辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji



101高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata



102横山広実
Hiromi Yokoyama



103辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji



104若原真吾
Shingo Wakahara
池上栄一
Eiichi Ikegami
林弘
Hiroshi Hayashi
坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki
105道籏義宣
Yoshinobu Michihata
塚田洋子
Yoko Tsukada
比留間敏之
Toshiyuki Biruma
青木康直
Yasunao Aoki
小林弥生
Yayoi Kobayashi
106高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
107辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


108横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
尾形重夫
Shigeo Ogata
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
109小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
窪秀己
Hidemi Kubo
佐々木よし子
Yoshiko Sasaki
吉田正広
Masahiro Yoshida
110高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
寺司重幸
Shigeyuki Teratsuka
荒井政良志
Masashi Arai
111坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki
川筋豊
Toyoda Kawasuji


112藤岡正宣
Masanobu Fujioka
佐久間信和
Nobukazu Sakuma
杉山京子
Kyoko Sugiyama
石山しげ子
Shigeko Ishiyama
113辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


114小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
吉田正広
Masahiro Yoshida
坂田筆男
Fudeo Sakata
金子紀男
Norio Kaneko
115横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima

116高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
117辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


118藤岡正宣
Masanobu Fujioka
佐久間信和
Nobukazu Sakuma
杉山京子
Kyoko Sugiyama
石山しげ子
Shigeko Ishiyama
119窪秀己
Hidemi Kubo
小原秀一
Hidekazu Ohara
佐々木よし子
Yoshiko Sasaki
細谷満
Mitsuru Hosotani
120横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
寺司重幸
Satoshi Ohjima
121高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
122小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
吉田正広
Masahiro Yoshida
坂田筆男
Fudeo Sakata
金子紀男
Norio Kaneko
123辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


124窪秀巳
Hidemi Kubo
吉田忠勝
Tadakatsu Yoshida
小原秀一
Hidekazu Ohara
細谷満
Mitsuru Hosotani
125横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
寺司重幸
Satoshi Ohjima
126高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
127辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


128小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
吉田正広
Masahiro Yoshida
金子紀男
Norio Kaneko

129坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki
山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
岡本健一
Kenichi Okamoto

130辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


131窪秀己
Hidemi Kubo
小原秀一
Hidekazu Ohara
細谷満
Mitsuru Hosotani
佐々木よし子
Yoshiko Sasaki
132横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
寺司重幸
Satoshi Ohjima
133高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
荒井政良志
Masayoshi Arai
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
134小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
吉田正宏
Masahiro Yoshida
坂田筆雄
Fudeo Sakata
金子紀男
Norio Kaneko
135藤岡正宣
Masanobu Fujioka
佐久間信計
Nobukazu Sakuma
秋本進
Susumu Akimoto
石山しげ子
Shigeko Ishiyama
136窪秀己
Hidemi Kubo
佐々木よし子
Yoshiko Sasaki
小原秀一
Hidekazu Ohara
細谷満
Mitsuru Hosotani
137辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki
138横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
寺司重幸
Satoshi Ohjima
139高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
江村豊秋
Toyoaki Emura
140小林一幸
Kazuyuki Kobayashi
吉田正宏
Masahiro Yoshida
坂田筆雄
Fudeo Sakata
金子紀男
Norio Kaneko
141辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
窪秀己
Hidemi Kubo
142藤岡正宣
Masanobu Fujioka
佐久間信計
Nobukazu Sakuma
秋本進
Susumu Akimoto

143富沢信雄
Nobuo Tomizawa
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
小林弥生
Yayoi Kobayashi
144辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野本温子
Atsuko Nomoto


145富沢信雄
Nobuo Tomizawa
丸山晃一
Koichi Maruyama
原恵子
Keiko Hara
堤純子
Junko Tsutsumi
小林弥生
Yayoi Kobayashi
146横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima
寺司重幸
Satoshi Ohjima
147高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki
148辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


149高畑順三郎
Junzaburo Takahata
鈴木寿美
Sumi Suzuki
児玉幸子
Sachiko Kodama
坂巻貞彦
Sadahiko Sakamaki
150横山広美
Hiromi Yokoyama
小田仁
Hitoshi Oda
大島聡
Satoshi Ohjima

151友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
道籏義宣
Yoshinobu Michihata
原恵子
Keiko Hara
柏田涼子
Ryoko Kashiwada
152知笛愛弓
Ayumi Tomobue
杉山京子
Kyoko Sugiyama
斉藤明美
Akemi Saito
門上洋子
Yoko Kadogami
153富沢信雄
Nobuo Tomizawa
田中敦子
Atsuko Tanaka
篠原征子
Masako Shinohara
堤純子
Junko Tsutsumi
154辻初樹
Hatsuki Tsuji
野崎温子
Atsuko Nozaki


155友永和秀
Kazuhide Tomonaga
山内昇寿郎
Toshio Yamauchi
道籏義宣
Yoshinobu Michihata
篠原征子
Masako Shinohara
田中敦子
Atsuko Tanaka
柏田涼子
Ryoko Kashiwada